What is sustainability?
“Sustainability is the goal of sustainable development. Sustainability suggests an equilibrium or condition of stability in which consumption and renewal of resources are in balance that maintains conditions for human survival that can continue for ever.” (Carlsen et al., 2015).
The essence of the term sustainable is “That which can be maintained over time.” (Heinberg and Lerch, 2010). This suggests that unsustainable societies, organisations or events cannot be maintained for long before ceasing to function at some point. Academia’s believe the term first received wide spread recognition after the 1987 Brundtland report where the term sustainable development was defined as, “meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (Bruntdland, 1987). Even though many people over the past decade have been discussing ways to change human lives and behaviour to reduce their environmental impact, the idea had been ignored by modern industrial societies (Hansmann, Mieg and Frischknecht, 2012).
Kuhlman and Farrington (2010) highlighted the two main concerns of sustainability, development and the environment. They suggested that the terms can be interpreted as needs versus resources or as the short versus the long term. “The ‘green’ economies and lifestyles of the twenty-first century may be conceptualised by environmental thinkers, However, they can only be actualised by industrial corporations.” (Desimone and Popoff, 2000). Most corporations are trying to be more environmentally, socially and economically sustainable, those that are not trying to are not expected to survive long-term.
Events are categorised by their size, scope and scale. Additionally, events can also be categorised according to their sector such as, exhibitions, art and entertainment, sports events and charitable events (Getz, 2005). Organising and managing an event consists of many factors and can affect various stakeholders. The decisions to organise and host an event is frequently dependant on the economic and social benefits it can bring a destination. Although festivals and special events are considered catalysts to boost destination tourism, there are several negative outcomes linked. For example, due to the large number of people an event can attract to a limited geographical space, the congestion can lead to the possibility of environmental degradation of a host community (Kim and Kim, 2018).
Natural capital should not be diminished by human activity (Folmer and Tietenberg, 2005).
The long-term survival and success of events not only depends on maximising economic benefits, but also on protecting the natural environment (Johnson et al., 1994). There are many cases that can highlight the difference between sustainable and unsustainable events that can aid in giving a better understanding of what the term ‘sustainable events’ really means, an example of an unsustainable event, is the Diwali festival in India. During the festival, people burn crackers, sparkles and light fireworks to express joy. However, Kulshrestha et al. (2004) investigated the emissions accumulated from the metals in the atmosphere. The researchers found that this activity resulted in metal pollution of the air and that the metal concentrations were high. They also found that the concentration of metal pollutants increased by 18 times compared to any other regular day and that the Diwali festival was contributing significantly to high amounts of metals in the air (Kulshrestha et al., 2004). The South African FIFA World Cup in 2010, is an example of a host nation managing strong sustainable practice. South Africa used a carbon offsetting system which used sewage gas to generate electricity for the implementation of solar arrays and for upgrading its transport network with Gautrain rail to diminish the traffic congestion and carbon dioxide emission (Egan, 2014; Bason, Cook and Anagnostopoulos, 2015; Molloy and Chetty, 2015).
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
CSR is a method of engagement with social and environmental issues (Henderson, 2008). Organisations have a large influence on the economy and life in general (Schaltegger et al., 2012). Sustainable development is not possible without the sustainable development of corporations, meaning that, corporate management is an important factor and influencer for shaping future developments and trends within the events industry. Tai and Chuang (2014) believe that organisations should not solely be profitable tools and that corporate practices must have a world structure that exceeds imposed standards. Kearny (2009) examined sustainability focused organisations across several industries including the events and tourism industry, the findings show that all the examined organisations implementing sustainable practices that were directed towards protecting an preserving the environment, survived the economic downturn, outperformed their industry peers financially and did not incur high expenditure costs due to the use of alternative sustainable resources (Kearney, 2009).
The Triple Bottom Line
Profit: Is the impact business practices have on the economic system (Elkington, 2002). The economic line relates to the capabilities of an economies subsystem of sustainability to enable its survival and evolution long-term while supporting future generations (Spangenberg, 2005).
People: Refers to the conducting of fair business practices to the labour, human capital and the community (Elkington, 1997). Practices should provide value to the society, disregarding social responsibilities can affect a businesses performance and sustainability (Alhadidi, 2015).
Planet: Relates to the efficient use of energy resources, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and minimalizing the ecological footprint (Fauzi et al., 2010). Engaging in practices that do not negatively affect environmental resources are important because events by their nature create waste (Dickson and Arcodia, 2010). Raj and Musgrave (2014) listed some of the negative environmental impacts of events such as, location damage, waste and pollution, noise pollution, traffic disruption, congestion and increase in energy demands and other natural resources.
Alhaddi, H. (2015) “Triple Bottom Line And Sustainability: A Literature Review”. Business And Management Studies 1 (2)
Bason, T., Cook, D. and Anagnostopoulod, C. (2015) ‘Legacy in Major Sport Events: Empirical Insights from the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa’. CHOREGIA: Sports management International Journal, 11(1), 44-61.
Brundtland, G. (1987) “Our Common Future—Call For Action”. Environmental Conservation14 (04), 291
Carlsen, J., Holmes, K., Hughes, M. and Mair, J. (n.d.) Events And Sustainability.
Death, C. (2011) “‘Greening’ The 2010 FIFA World Cup: Environmental Sustainability And The Mega-Event In South Africa”. Journal Of Environmental Policy & Planning 13 (2), 99-117
DeSimone, L. and Popoff, F. (2000) Eco-Efficiency. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press
Dickson, C. and Arcodia, C. (2010) “Promoting Sustainable Event Practice: The Role Of Professional Associations”. International Journal Of Hospitality Management 29 (2), 236-244
Digital, P. (2019) Glastonbury Festival – Our Green Policies [online] available from <https://www.glastonburyfestivals.co.uk/information/green-glastonbury/our-green-policies/>
Egan, M. (2014) ‘South Africa’s World Cup warning to Brazil’. CNN [online] 10 June. Available from <http://money.cnn.com/2014/06/09/investing/world-cup-south-africa-brazil/> [19 December 2018].
Elkington, J. (2002) Cannibals With Forks. Oxford: Capstone
Fauzi, H., Svensson, G. and Rahman, A. (2010) ““Triple Bottom Line” As “Sustainable Corporate Performance”: A Proposition For The Future”. Sustainability 2 (5), 1345-1360
Folmer, H. and Tietenberg, T. (2005) The International Yearbook Of Environmental And Resource Economics 2005/2006. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited
Gearon, C. (2018) Glastonbury, Powerful Thinking, And Sustainability In UK Festivals [online] available from <https://epigram.org.uk/2018/03/01/glastonbury-powerful-thinking-and-sustainability-in-uk-festivals/>
Getz, D. (2005) Event Management & Event Tourism. New York: Cognizant Communication Corp.
Hansmann, R., Mieg, H. and Frischknecht, P. (2012) “Principal Sustainability Components: Empirical Analysis Of Synergies Between The Three Pillars Of Sustainability”. International Journal Of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 19 (5), 451-459
Heinberg, R. and Lerch, D. (2010) The Post Carbon Reader. Healdsburg, Calif.: Watershed Media
Henderson, J. (2008) “The New Triad Power: Key Players In The Promise Of Global CSR”. SSRN Electronic Journal
Humphreys, B. (2010) [online] available from <https://www.forbes.com/2010/06/15/world-cup-economics-south-africa-opinions-contributors-brad-humphreys.html#64a670b73d7f>
Johnson, J., Snepenger, D. and Akis, S. (1994) “Residents’ Perceptions Of Tourism Development”. Annals Of Tourism Research 21 (3), 629-642
Jones, M. (2014) Sustainable Event Management. 2nd edn. NY: Routledge
Kearney, A. (2009) Green Winners [online] available from <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277609498_Triple_Bottom_Line_and_Sustainability_A_Literature_Review>
Kim, J. and Kim, J. (2018) “Corporate Sustainability Management And Its Market Benefits”. Sustainability 10 (5), 1455
Kuhlman, T. and Farrington, J. (2010) “What Is Sustainability?”. Sustainability 2 (11), 3436-3448
Kulshrestha, U., Nageswara Rao, T., Azhaguvel, S. and Kulshrestha, M. (2004) “Emissions And Accumulation Of Metals In The Atmosphere Due To Crackers And Sparkles During Diwali Festival In India”. Atmospheric Environment 38 (27), 4421-4425
Masterman, G. (2014) Strategic Sports Event Management. Oxfordshire: Routledge
Mol, A. and Sonnenfeld, D. (2000) “Ecological Modernisation Around The World: An Introduction”. Environmental Politics 9 (1), 1-14
Molloy, E., and Chetty, T. (2015) ‘The rocky road to legacy: Lessons from the 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa stadium program’. Project Management Journal, 46(3), 88–107.
Newsroom, E. (2016) Glastonbury 2016: 10 Reasons This Is The Most Sustainable Festival Yet[online] available from <https://www.edie.net/news/7/Glastonbury-2016–The-most-sustainable-festival-yet–/>
Raj, R. and Musgrave, J. (2014) Event Management And Sustainability. Wallingford: CABI
Roche, M. (2003) “Mega-Events, Time And Modernity”. Time & Society 12 (1), 99-126
Schaltegger, S., Freund, F. and Hansen, E. (2012) “Business Cases For Sustainability: The Role Of Business Model Innovation For Corporate Sustainability”. International Journal Of Innovation And Sustainable Development 6 (2), 95
Tai, F. and Chuang, S. (2014) “Corporate Social Responsibility”. Ibusiness 06 (03), 117-130